Hepatitis A is an illness that causes inflammation to your liver.
It’s caused by a virus that’s spread through:
- eating or drinking contaminated food, drinks or ice
- person-to-person contact with a contaminated person
- eating from or licking contaminated utensils
- touching the poo of an infected person (for example, on a towel or nappy)
The illness may last only a few weeks, but some people are seriously ill for up to six months. Hepatitis A usually doesn’t cause long-term damage like other types of hepatitis can.
What causes hepatitis A?
Hepatitis A is caused by a virus that attacks the liver. You get hepatitis A by coming in contact with someone with the virus, or through consuming contaminated food, drink or ice. The food or drinks would need to be contaminated by the faeces (poo) of an infected person. It can also be transmitted through sexual contact.
It’s more common in countries or places lacking clean water or where there are risky hygienic practices, such as people not washing their hands after using the toilet.
Hepatitis A symptoms
Symptoms can appear a few weeks after you pick up the infection, but usually they appear at about 30 days.
Some people, especially young children, can have hepatitis A without having any symptoms.
People who do have symptoms may have:
- abdominal pain
- nausea/vomiting and loss of appetite
- fever and muscle/joint pains
- pain in the right side of your abdomen (where your liver is)
- dark urine
- clay-coloured bowel movements (poo)
- jaundice – a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes
Some people get their symptoms back within a few months, but after that most people recover completely and develop immunity.
Diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis A
A blood test will confirm the virus.
There is no medication to treat hepatitis A. Your doctor may suggest rest, plenty of fluids and relief for any nausea or pain.
To protect your liver, you shouldn’t drink any alcohol at all while you have hepatitis. Your doctor will advise you what medicines you can take.
If you have hepatitis A you are infectious and can spread the illness. This infectious period lasts from about two weeks before the symptoms appear to a week or so after they go away.
While you are infectious, you should touch people as little as possible, and you should not work as a food handler. If your children have hepatitis A, they should not attend preschool or school during the infectious period as they could spread the illness.
If you are diagnosed with hepatitis A, your doctor will need to enter details on the Notifiable Diseases database.
Hepatitis A prevention
You can be effectively vaccinated against hepatitis A.
The virus can live on your hands for several hours and in food left at room temperature for much longer. The virus is resistant to heating and freezing. Washing your hands carefully after going to the toilet, before preparing food and before eating helps prevent infection.
Practicing safe sex will also help.
Your doctor may suggest you be vaccinated if you’re planning to visit a region with where hepatitis A is common, including some overseas countries. In those regions, you should avoid food and drinks that may include or be washed in contaminated water.
If someone in your house has hepatitis A, you should discuss with your doctor whether you should have an immunoglobulin injection, which gives short-term protection against some diseases.